Mumbai Lighting Exhibition
Date: 2009-08-14 09:35:06 Hits: 5064

Rebecca Smith 1, and Hui-Ming Yu 2 translation


1. "The Wall Street Journal" reporter stations in Los Angeles, Los Angeles 90001;


2. U.S. Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) in Beijing, Beijing 100022


And the rapid construction of several new power stations 10 to increase the generating capacity compared to a reduction in electricity consumption, particularly as a target to reduce power plant emissions savings, is becoming a more viable solution. U.S. energy consumption in 2005 reached 296 billion U.S. dollars of expenditure, compared with 1993 increased nearly 50%, a fact that also provided the impetus for energy conservation. In addition, on how to conserve energy, the new technology makes it a reasonable investment cost can be used to produce energy-efficient hardware. The government's participation in the development of energy-saving plan, the more data available. They know what the past has been successful energy-saving measures, and build on the success of more progress. The following is in the next few years will enable a major change in energy consumption of innovation 10.




The use of compact fluorescent lamps


The maximum power consumption of the lighting industry, and is still the most expensive one of electricity. However, due to lighting everywhere, like air conditioners are often not like so many large-scale power equipment concern. This means that there has been a neglected area of lighting there is a huge potential for improvement. We've improved the lighting of the traditional technology, greatly reducing its energy consumption. To compact fluorescent lamps as an example, the base has been small enough to be embedded in standard Edison lampholders. Compact fluorescent lamps can save typically 75% of lighting costs, than the life of an ordinary incandescent bulbs, at least 7 times longer. Many compact fluorescent lamps or even a soft white light can be issued to and incandescent lighting effects similar. Many power companies provide electricity to the discount, which will be able to have a 100W incandescent illumination of 24W compact fluorescent lamps down to the use of the cost of one U.S. dollars each, or 2 U.S. dollars.


According to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (referred to as "EPA") statistics, if every American family with a compact fluorescent lamp replace an ordinary incandescent lamp, consumers throughout the United States a year, 60 million U.S. dollars to save electricity. This saved energy, enough to light seven million families; the power plant to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, equivalent to a reduction of the road one million vehicles.


The use of semiconductor light-emitting diode technology


With light-emitting diode (LED) to replace the traditional traffic lights, slashed a lot of city's electricity consumption. Under normal circumstances, at the traffic lights with an 11W LED off of a 140W incandescent lamp, energy saving will have the effect of 92%. Light-emitting diodes have been more ready to enter the field of industrial applications to prepare, such as supermarkets in the refrigerator. At present, the production of white LED light source is also more difficult because the white light-emitting diode light-emitting diodes than the cost of color is much higher. However, according to lighting experts predict that a few years, the white LED is expected to decline in the price of a certain level, which can be more widely used.


Replace part of the use of natural light indoor lighting


At the same time, consumers and businesses are taking a variety of new methods, such as "the collection of" natural light of the device - first natural light together and then projected onto the interior, as buildings do not need to use a lot of the lighting . Park City, Utah, natural lighting company (Nature's Lighting) on the mirror embedded in the production of solar energy absorbing plate. Put them on the flat roof, the sunlight through the skylight into the building project, the diffuse reflectance device evenly distributed light indoors. Wal-Mart store in the company, electricity is the only major expenditure of labor, more than 1 billion U.S. dollars annually. Therefore, Wal-Mart has been to improve the collection of solar technology, through the introduction of refraction of the store window to sunlight. This window is not the collection of solar heat radiation. Illumination sensor can be used in accordance with the degree of automatic adjustment of natural light fluorescent illumination inside. Wal-Mart stores in each of the lighting system installed in an average of about 200,000 U.S. dollars, by saving money on electricity bills and reduce air conditioning costs, in 2 ~ 3 years to recover their investments.


Energy-efficient hardware


The use of variable frequency motor


Over the past few years, hardware energy efficiency has been a huge improvement. Electric motors for industrial use such as technological innovation can be substantial savings for the enterprise. According to the city of Palo Alto, California, Electric Power Research Institute (Electric Power Research Institute), vice president in charge of innovation戈林斯Clark (Clark Gellings) said electrical energy consumption accounted for 67 percent of industrial energy consumption. However, because of the need to keep the old motor to start and shut down a large number of energy wasted. Now many companies are switching to variable frequency motor. According to Mr.戈林斯, variable frequency motor with different load and adjust the speed, rather than frequent start-up and shut down the machine. Large-scale hotel operator MGM Mirage in Las Vegas, the hotel is located within the refrigeration equipment is installed on 22 new variable-speed motor. The cost of four million U.S. dollars of equipment renovation project can be just about 2.5 years through savings in electricity and the return on investment, after which, the company will save each year 1.6 million U.S. dollars.


The development of new energy efficiency standards for air-conditioning


Air-conditioning industry is also huge amounts of money can be saved. For domestic and commercial central air-conditioning installation of new federal energy efficiency standards have been entered into force in January 2006; the new standards required in 2006 sale of the minimum energy efficiency of air conditioners must be at least 2005, sold more than the minimum energy efficiency of 30% energy-saving air conditioners. That the former must be 13SEER (season ranked performance efficiency) standards, while the latter is the implementation of a 14-year 10SEER standards. According to the U.S. Department of Energy statistics, energy efficiency standards, from 2006 to 2030, power companies across the country may reduce the 40 new power plant construction. At the same time, by 2020, electricity consumers will save one billion U.S. dollars.


More "smart" sensor


Manufacturers have begun to choose advanced sensors to better control energy consumption and lower operating costs in order to design more intelligent products. The price a few dollars for the sensors, the use of a few years would save thousands of dollars, so a growing number of companies in the use of the technology. For example, the city of Moorpark, Calif., manufacturer of custom sensor Kavlico company, its production of commercial refrigeration equipment for the semiconductor sales controller significantly. Sensors will tell the controller when the refrigerator's defrost cycle, as an alternative to the self-timer, so do not need refrigeration equipment another unnecessary "heating - cooling" cycle.


Kavlico is Schneider Electric (Schneider Electric) under a U.S. company, it Fahrenkopf, general manager of Scott (Scott Farrenkopf), the new controller can be "reduced by 25% ~ 30% of electricity consumption." He also said that car manufacturers and equipment manufacturers have been ordered in more for their tailor-made sensors, used to save fuel and energy efficiency systems are designed.


Better measuring device


Consumers can be cheap, convenient measurement tool to record the purchase of household power consumption. San Diego City, a retired administrator of the center Pierre Eric (Eric Bier) are afraid that their electricity prices, then buy a P3 International Inc. in New York created the "tile Province" (Kill-A -Watt) of the measuring device. First the price of about 40 U.S. dollars a standard measuring instrument inserted into the wall power outlet, and then inserted into the home of other electrical measuring instrument, we can understand the electrical power consumption. Measuring instrument will be displayed on the "dry-watt - hour" reading multiplied by the local electricity, a household can be calculated using the monthly electricity bill to pay.


The development of energy efficiency standards


The federal government for more than 10 kinds of products that include a minimum energy efficiency standards. Including dishwashers, refrigerators, water heaters, room air conditioners and electric motors. The federal government estimated that from 1990 to 2000, the initiative for consumers to save nearly 50 billion U.S. dollars of tariffs.


At the same time, EPA (EPA) to nearly 40 kinds of products labeled "Energy Star" (Energy Star) logo. They represent every type of product in the highest energy efficiency of 25% of the products. According to EPA estimates that in 2005 the use of "Energy Star" products to consumers 12 billion U.S. dollars to save electricity, save electricity enough to supply 11 million families.


Nevertheless, the EPA standards, there are still some omissions, such as to make up for these omissions, the next few years will save more energy. To TV as an example, the Government does not require a TV set energy efficiency standards, the "Energy Star" logo of the TV, but its in "standby" mode consume less electricity. In other words, does not boot when power consumption is low (in fact, all with remote control equipment, power has never really been broken, unless the power plug unplug it).


In recent years, with the rapid increase in TV consumption, the development of energy efficiency standards for television voice of the increasingly high. Television screen the size of a sharp increase, a rapid increase in the additional devices, from satellite TV antenna available to the programmable set-top boxes. Some families now spend on home entertainment equipment, electricity, electricity rather than frozen food. International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) developed technical standards for electrical and electronics often been adopted by the Government. The Committee is currently being developed to measure the power consumption of standard TV. Concluded its work in the IEC, the earliest possible beginning from 2008, TV will be able to effect some identification information. At the same time, the Environmental Protection Department said they are considering the total power consumption under the TV rather than the power consumption in standby mode to display "Energy Star" logo, as consumers buy new TV sets to provide true reference value tool.


Association of electronic consumer products (Consumer Electronics Association) to encourage voluntary posted signs, but not for TV products like the purpose of the mandatory energy efficiency standards, because "the electronics industry's products is very large, changes very quickly," the association's deputy in charge of technical standards马克沃特president Brian (Brian Markwalter) said. Advocates standard is maintained that the rapid changes in product development the introduction of the new standards more urgent. Portland, Oregon specializes in energy consulting company Ecos Melville Chris (Chris Calwell) said: "Energy use has changed, we should pay close attention to the existing energy-efficient signs posted."


New building codes


All U.S. states have the construction of health, fire and safety regulations, of which there are 40 state building energy efficiency norms. Some energy-saving provisions of the new building norms must be taken to measure the minimum thermal resistance. According to the Department of Energy estimates, modify building codes for the U.S. consumer in 1991 and 2005 of 4.7 billion U.S. dollars to save electricity. A few days ago the United States there are 10 states there is no statewide energy efficiency building common norms, some of which are considering the use of state-level energy-efficient building codes, including Mississippi and Alabama, in part because they are affected by the hurricane are beginning to heavy after the re - construction work. At the same time, there are several energy efficiency norms have been developed taking into account the state Commission to adopt international standards (International Code Council) 2005 was promulgated as a model specification of the latest version. Estimated that by 2010, building energy efficiency norms in the United States to reduce the consumption of primary energy for U.S. consumers to save 10 billion U.S. dollars annually.


Incentive for power companies


Power companies in order to eliminate obstacles to financing of energy-saving projects, many states revised the tariff program. California and other states among the basic service charge costs for each power company to spend the vast majority of estimates, rather than kilowatt-hour meter readings of electricity charges. July 2006, in Aberdeen are still structural problems in the rates of states, dozens of power companies, large energy consumption and energy commitment to regulatory agencies, through resource planning, to increase attention on energy conservation to improve the tariff structure. For example, with the construction of a new 500 MW power plant, as a means to cut through some 500 MW of electricity demand, we can save money while protecting the environment.


More than half of the United States Power PLC state authority has approved to support the National Energy Conservation Action Plan. Iowa Commissioner of electricity, the national energy-saving action黛安姆恩斯leader (Diane Munns) said that they are willing to participate in the National Energy Conservation Action Plan, is because most of the state electricity regulatory agencies have experienced a "new power plant project and the price continued to rise, "and so on. EPA advocates of the scheme is estimated that if the energy-saving action plans can be implemented in the United States, the United States each year of 20 billion U.S. dollars to reduce energy costs.


At the same time, California Public Utilities Commission is considering measures to promote energy-efficient power companies to set up a special monetary incentives. Chairman of the Committee on皮威Michael (Michael Peevey) said, "I would like to see power companies from investing in energy efficiency has been the return on large-scale construction is expected to work with them to build a new plant to be considerable gains."


TOU energy prices


Power companies will use the new power meters. Energy meter with precision several times a day (instead of monthly) automatic monitoring of the electricity consumption of each customer. This measure will enable the power companies at different times of the day or different seasons of the year, according to charging different prices. In the electricity supply situation is tight, or when particularly high fuel prices, regulatory bodies can be inhibited by raising the price to the demand for electricity, thereby reducing the need for power generation. California Public Utilities Commission of皮威, said: "Some consumers may not agree to such an idea, but when people understand this more environmentally friendly, they will turn to support this approach." According to the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's recent report studies throughout the United States, only about 6 percent of the electricity users of this power meter is installed. Pennsylvania, Wisconsin, Connecticut, Kansas, Iowa and Maine, the highest utilization rate of the energy meter, from 14% to 53% range. From 2008, Southern California Edison Company (subsidiary of Edison International Company) of five million customers will be fitted with a new energy meter. The new energy meter can be a two-way communications, to the power companies can send instant readings, but also with other devices such as smart thermostats dialogue. Remote control in order to set the temperature. So consumers will be able to better control electricity consumption, such as power supply or any price higher during the period, users can reduce power consumption.


Discount on their electricity charges


Many power companies also provide energy-saving electrical appliances and equipment discount on their electricity charges, by encouraging the replacement of old equipment and a permanent reduction in demand for energy. New York in 2002 to 75 U.S. dollars per 16 million recovery of the old air conditioners. Recycling these old air-conditioning in 10 years, energy savings, equivalent to a large power plant's generating capacity throughout the year. California consumers pay for electricity each year close to 20 billion U.S. dollars, the state has committed from 2006 to 2008, from electricity to allocate two billion U.S. dollars in investment in energy-saving projects. In all states is the highest record of this investment. For other states, power companies will be better if we make the tariff revenue equivalent to 1% ~ 2% of capital investment to the energy-saving projects, it has taken a big step. PG & E (Pacific Gas and electricity company) will invest 974 million U.S. dollars, is expected to be a permanent reduction of 600MW of electricity demand, which is equivalent to build a large power stations and save 30 ~ 50 years of fuel, will be only a power-saving lighting nearly 250MW.


Some energy-saving projects can be large discount on their electricity charges. 2005 real estate investment company GMH Capital Partners (GMH Capital Partners LP) in the California city of Richmond, purchased a large multi-residential buildings, it invested 327,428 U.S. dollars for the nearly 20-year-old energy-saving buildings: Installation new lighting, water heaters and heat reflective roofing materials. Expected annual savings of 112,000 U.S. dollars, of which the most energy-efficient building will be 1008 units of the tenants to share. In order to encourage energy conservation by GMH for the tremendous efforts made by the transformation of its spending on equipment and installation costs have been on full compensation. Local power company PG & E to do so because, if only the lessee can enjoy the benefits of energy conservation, most owners are reluctant to carry out the Energy Saving costly. PG & E customer energy companies Beverly Alexander, vice president (Beverly Alexander) said: "This is a difficult one to capture the market."


User Response Plan


Allow users to purchase price of a higher energy-saving equipment is lasting way to reduce energy consumption. In addition, there is a temporary reduction in energy consumption, particularly large energy. In the next few years, especially in building a new power plant a lot of difficulties, such as the New England region, these "demand response" will be even more eye-catching projects. Early energy-saving projects are paid to reduce the energy consumption of major energy use, sometimes forcing them to hold down production. There is now a more easy way to reduce power consumption, and that is through the use of control devices, in accordance with the requirements of the power companies dimmed lighting and air conditioning, or to run the pump rotation. Congress in response to instructions issued by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission recently inspected the electric power industry, found that only start existing "demand response" items, you can reduce the demand for 37500 MW. The equivalent of 75 large-scale power plant generating capacity.


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